Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Specimens in Anyigba, Nigeria
Mofolorunsho, K. C *, Emmanuel M. T, Omatola C.A, Aminu R. F. and Ocheni H. O.
UJMR 2022, 7(1), Pp 43 -51, DOI: 10.47430/ujmr.2271.007
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major public health concern, and it is responsible for both hospital and community associated infections globally. In this study, we aimed at determining the prevalence and pattern of resistance of MRSA to commonly used antibiotics in Anyigba, Nigeria. This was a hospital based, cross-sectional study conducted between August 2017 and February 2018. One hundred and fifty routine clinical specimens were collected from selected health facilities in Anyigba for laboratory analyses. Standard laboratory methods were employed in the identification of the isolates. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was confirmed using Oxacillin Resistance Screening Agar Base (ORSAB) supplemented with 2g/l of Oxacillin. Screening to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles of all confirmed MRSA isolates was by disc diffusion method. A total of 124 (82.7%) isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were recovered from clinical samples obtained. Of these isolates, 28 (22.6%) were methicillin resistant. The percentage distribution rate of MRSA was highest (50.0%) in urine samples. Majority of these isolates were resistant to at least four of the six antibiotics tested. Most of the isolates recovered from urine samples were resistant to Gentamicin (92.9%), Amoxicillin (100.0%) and Cotrimoxazole (85.7%). Our study showed a significant presence of MRSA isolates in the clinical specimens collected, with a relatively high rate to gentamicin, Amoxicillin and Cotrimoxazole antibiotics. This study highlights the need for monitoring of antimicrobial use considering the lack of innovation in the development of new antimicrobials which lessens efforts at combating infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens.
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Antibiotic resistance, Clinical specimens