Prevalence of Cadmium and Lead Residues in Fried Meat (Suya) Sold in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria


  • Saulawa, M. A. Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria
  • Jikamshi, M. A. Nigerian Correctional Service, Kaduna Open Prison Camp, Kaduna State, Nigeria



Bioaccumulation, Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Residues, Processed meat (Suya)


Study’s Novelty/Excerpt

  • This study is novel as it provides the first comprehensive analysis of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) contamination in various types of suya meat in Kaduna, Nigeria, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.
  • Unlike previous research, this study uniquely examines multiple animal sources and local government areas, offering a detailed comparison of contamination levels across species and regions.
  • Additionally, the findings highlight the widespread public health risk due to Cd and Pb levels exceeding international safety standards, emphasizing the urgent need for regulatory measures to mitigate environmental pollution and protect public health.

Full Abstract

Heavy metals are of public health concern worldwide due to their damaging effects on human and animal health. The study was aimed at analyzing the presence of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) residues in suya meats; cattle meat (beef), sheep meat (mutton), goat meat (chevon), fowl meat (chicken) and dog meat sold in the Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State. A descriptive-quantitative research design was used, with fifty samples collected from four Local Government Areas (Chikun, Igabi, Kaduna North and Kaduna South). Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometery was used to analyze and quantify the presence of these heavy metals. Microsoft Excel (Version 2019) and one-way ANOVA are the statistical tools used for result analysis and Cd and Pb were found to be present in all the suya samples analyzed. The results showed statistical significance (p<0.05) between the overall mean concentration of Cd (0.049 mg/kg) and Pb (0.44 mg/kg) in the samples. Even though the mean concentration of Cd in suya samples varied with regards to which the animal  originates viz: cattle (0.033 mg/kg), sheep (0.058 mg/kg), goat (0.048 mg/kg), dog (0.04 mg/kg) and chicken (0.078 mg/kg); likewise that of Pb: cattle (0.47 mg/kg), sheep (0.41 mg/kg), goat (0.41 mg/kg), dog (0.39 mg/kg) and chicken (0.51 mg/kg); the animal species from which the meat used in making the suya had no statistically significant influence on the heavy metal content of the meat (p˃0.05). The mean concentration of Cd and Pb obtained within the study areas, in mg/kg were: Chikun (0.046 and 0.43), Igabi (0.044 and 0.43), Kaduna North (0.054 mg/kg) and (0.49 mg/kg), Kaduna South (0.053 mg/kg) and (0.41 mg/kg) respectively. The mean concentration of cadmium and lead in the suya samples was above the permissible limits set by EC and FAO limits of 0.01ug/g lead and 0.003ug/g for cadmium (FAO, 1983), indicating the general contamination of suya meats by heavy metals. The study recommends public measures to minimize environmental pollution and bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb to prevent related ailments and mortality; enforcing regulations governing industrial activities and waste disposal to protect the public from heavy metals pollution.


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How to Cite

Saulawa, M. A., & Jikamshi, M. A. (2024). Prevalence of Cadmium and Lead Residues in Fried Meat (Suya) Sold in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria. UMYU Journal of Microbiology Research (UJMR), 65–72.