Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Calotropis procera Root Extract against some Pathogenic Microorganisms in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria


  • Shitu, A. S. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Modibbo Adama University, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8131-9712
  • Salisu, Z. N. Faculty of Science, Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria
  • Johnson, A. A. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Modibbo Adama University, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7586-5410




Antimicrobial, Calotropis procera, Microorganisms, Phytochemical compounds, Root extracts


Study’s Novelty/Excerpt

  • This study evaluates the antimicrobial potential of Calotropis procera root extracts, traditionally used in Nigerian medicine, by scientifically validating their therapeutic properties.
  • The research identified various phytochemical constituents, including tannin, saponin, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and reducing sugars, with terpenoids uniquely present in the aqueous extract.
  • The significant antimicrobial activity observed, particularly with the chloroform extract showing the largest inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus, underscores the potential of C. procera roots as a rich source of bioactive compounds for developing alternative treatments for infectious diseases.

Full Abstract

Calotropis procera has been traditionally used for medicinal purposes in Nigeria, with various parts of the plant utilized by traditional healers without scientific validation of their therapeutic properties. Therefore, this study sought to assess the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial efficacy of root extracts from C. procera against pathogenic microorganisms. The extraction of C. procera roots was carried out using aqueous, chloroform, and n-hexane solvents, and the qualitative analysis of the phytochemical constituents was conducted following standard procedures. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus flavus through the agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical screening identified the presence of tannin, saponin, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and reducing sugars in all extracts, with terpenoids exclusively found in the aqueous extract and cardiac glycosides absent in all extracts. The extracts demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against all tested pathogens, with the chloroform extract exhibiting the largest inhibition zone (23.50±0.38 mm) against S. aureus, while the n-hexane extract displayed the smallest inhibition zone (6.38±0.52 mm) against A. flavus. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined as 25 mg/ml for the chloroform extract against S. aureus and S. typhi, and 50 mg/ml for both aqueous and n-hexane extracts against K. pneumoniae and C. albicans. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was established at 100 mg/ml for S. aureus, S. typhi, and all extracts. The root extracts of C. procera exhibited promising antimicrobial effects against S. aureus and S. typhi, indicating its potential as a rich source of bioactive compounds and a viable alternative to antibiotics for treating infectious diseases.


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How to Cite

Shitu, A. S., Salisu, Z. N., & Johnson, A. A. (2024). Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Calotropis procera Root Extract against some Pathogenic Microorganisms in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. UMYU Journal of Microbiology Research (UJMR), 194–200. https://doi.org/10.47430/ujmr.2493.023