Antibacterial Susceptibility Pattern of Bacteria Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Lettuce and Gurasa Sold within Kaduna State University (Main Campus), Kaduna State


  • Muhammad, J. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
  • Bako, G. D. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria.
  • Dogara, U. P. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria.
  • Musa, B. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria.
  • Jeremiah, J. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria.



Ready-to-Eat, Lettuce, Gurasa, Kaduna State University, Resistance, Pathogens


Study’s Novelty/Excerpt

  • This study evaluates the antibacterial susceptibility of pathogens isolated from ready-to-eat lettuce and gurasa sold at Kaduna State University, identifying significant health risks associated with these popular foods.
  • The research reveals a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp, Salmonella spp, and Klebsiella spp, with S. aureus and E. coli being the most common isolates.
  • The findings highlight the urgent need for improved food safety measures and antibiotic resistance management to mitigate potential public health threats.

Full Abstract

The consumption of ready-to-eat lettuce and gurasa has gained acceptance due to its appealing taste and nutritional value.  However, these foods can serve as a vehicle for transmission of pathogens.  This study was carried out to assess the antibacterial susceptibility pattern of pathogens isolated from lettuce and gurasa sold at Kaduna State University.  Samples were collected from five vendors of gurasa and lettuce.  Standard microbiological methods were carried out using a pour plate and a modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method to determine the antibacterial susceptibility pattern.  The isolates obtained were examined for morphological and biochemical characteristics.  Escherichia coli, Bacillus spp, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella spp. were isolated and identified.  Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent bacterium in this study, having 27.7% in lettuce and 38.4% in gurasa, and Escherichia coli, having 16.6% in lettuce and 30.7% in gurasa.  There was no significant difference (P ˃ 0.05) in the total colony counts of bacteria among the samples.  Lettuce had the least bacteria count (1.48 x 106 CFU/g), while gurasa had the highest (1.55 x 106 CFU/g).  Antimicrobial sensitivity test results showed that 10 S. aureus isolates were resistant to Rocephin (100%), 7 E. coli isolates were resistant to Septrin, Amoxicillin, and Augmentin (100%), 6 Klebsiella spp isolates were resistant to Amoxicillin and Augmentin(100%), 5 Salmonella spp isolates were resistant to Septrin, Amoxicillin and Augmentin (100%) and 3 Bacillus spp were resistant to Rocephin (100%).  The high bacterial resistance to antibiotics is of great concern as infections with these organisms could be lethal.


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How to Cite

Muhammad, J., Bako, G. D., Dogara, U. P., Musa, B., & Jeremiah, J. (2024). Antibacterial Susceptibility Pattern of Bacteria Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Lettuce and Gurasa Sold within Kaduna State University (Main Campus), Kaduna State. UMYU Journal of Microbiology Research (UJMR), 187–193.

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